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Institute of Biomedical Ethics and History of Medicine (IBME) Psychiatric and Psychotherapy Ethics (PAPE) Research Group

Good treatment


Short description

Efficacy, expedience, and economy are widely seen as necessary and sufficient criteria for “good treatment”. In Switzerland, this corresponds to the so-called WZW-criteria (Wirksamkeit, Zweckmässigkeit und Wirtschaftlichkeit). However, we elaborate on whether and how a fourth criterion should be seen as necessary for “good treatment” which is ethics.

Collaboratoring universities – persons

  • Prof. Jens Gaab, PhD - University of Basel, Switzerland
  • Heike Gerger, PhD - University of Basel, Switzerland
  • Cosima Locher - University of Basel, Switzerland
  • Antje Frey Nascimento - University of Basel, Switzerland

Involved PAPE group researchers


  • Trachsel, M. (in press). Ethik in der Psychotherapie. In. W. Rief, E. Schramm, & B. Strauss (Hrsg.) Psychologische Psychotherapie – Ein kompetenzorientiertes Lehrbuch. München: Elsevier.
  • Gerger, H., Frey Nascimento, A., Locher, C., Gaab, J., & Trachsel, M. (2020). What are the key characteristics of a 'good' psychotherapy? Calling for ethical patient involvement. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11:406.
  • Gaab, J., & Trachsel, M. (2019). Was wirkt, ist nicht immer gut. Ethik als notwendiges Kriterium für eine gute Psychotherapie. Psychoscope, 1, 19-21.
  • Trachsel, M., & Gaab, J. (2018, June). The “Big Four E” of good psychotherapy: effectiveness, expediency, economy, and ethics. Presentation held at the 22nd World Congress of Psychotherapy of the International Federation of Psychotherapy, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.